An Introduction to Growing Cannabis in Soil

Soil is arguably one of the top factors that influences plant growth and development. A well chosen or prepared soil, or soilless growing media will alleviate many issues throughout the growing cycle. Soil is composed of: mineral solids (sand, silt, clay), water, air, organic matter and organisms (bacteria, fungi, earthworms, arthropods). Soilless growing media is composed of organic matter (peat, coco, compost) and aeration/drainage (perlite, rice hulls, sand). An ideal soil for plant production would consist of 25% water, 25-50% air, 45% mineral and 5-20% organic matter. A second description of an ideal soil would be about 30% sand, 30% silt, 30% clay and 5-10% organic matter.

The relative proportions of these components describes soil texture, or structure. Loamy soil with a granular structure is generally preferred plant production. The second important factor of soil, or soilless growing media is soil chemistry. Soil pH, indicates the amount of hydrogen ions in the soil, the more hydrogen that a soil contains the more acidic the soil is. Soil pH affects nutrient availability. The ideal pH for cannabis is 5.5 to 6.8. Generally field soils have higher pH’s and soilless growing media tends to be slightly more acidic. If the pH is too low (acidic) or high (alkaline) nutrients become unavailable, or locked out, or overabundant, leading to toxicity. Alkalinity causes some minerals, such as copper, iron and manganese to become less available. Counteract this by adding sulfur, which is converted to sulfuric acid by bacteria, or by adding nitrogenous fertilizers. Acidity inhibits growth of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Counteract this by adding calcium or magnesium compounds (lime). The best way to know both soil texture and chemistry is by submitting a soil sample to a lab for analysis.

The third important component of soil is the organisms living in the soil. Bacteria, fungi, earthworms and arthropods (insects and spiders) are just some of the organisms that are critical to soil health. Many important species are naturally present in soils, or may need to be introduced. Soilless growing media generally has much lower biological activity at the start of the growing cycle due to it being an engineered soil, designed for container growing.

There are many recipes for preparing your own soil, soilless growing media and enriched/super soils. A simple mix contains equal parts of peat (or coco), perlite (or rice hulls), and sand (or bark). A small amount of lime is often needed to raise the pH, but depending on the mix you may need to add sulfur. Recently, I have seen one pre-made growing mix test at 4.4 and another at 8.2, so knowing your pH is very important for ensuring healthy plant growth. Again, many recipes are online so it’s relatively easy to find one to meet your preferences. If you are interested in super soils I suggest checking out

Subcool’s Super Soil Recipe

  • 8 large bags of a high-quality organic potting soil with coco fiber and mycorrhizae (i.e., your base soil)
  • 25 to 50 lbs of organic worm castings
  • 5 lbs steamed bone meal
  • 5 lbs Bloom bat guano
  • 5 lbs blood meal
  • 3 lbs rock phosphate
  • ¾ cup Epson salts
  • ½ cup sweet lime (dolomite)
  • ½ cup azomite (trace elements)
  • 2 tbsp powdered humic acid

The type of soil you choose to grow in will depend on how you plan to fertilize the plant. If you want strict control over nutrients at each watering, you will probably choose a simple soil, so that you can add products as needed. If you want to use only water and no additional fertilizers, you should look into enriched or super soils. Build-A-Soil is a great resource for anyone interested in making their own soil.

For many individuals and growing operations preparing your own soil is not a feasible option. There are countless choices of pre-made soils and soilless growing media. Pro-Mix has long been the grower standard for those looking for a simple soil where you want to have control over feeding the plant and is widely available. Soils containing wood fiber, in order to reduce the amount of peat being used, are now available, one example is Berger BM5 Super HP. Fox Farm has a whole line of enriched soils tailored for growing cannabis, Ocean Forest and Bush Doctor Coco Loco are two examples. Roots Organics has a large number of offerings, with Formula 707 and Emerald Mountain being examples of enriched growing media. These are just several examples, with so many growing styles and preferences, there is a mix for everyone!

Low budget indoor grow setup

I’ve been growing for over 20 years indoors – at times with a large personal budget to blow on whatever gear I wanted and other times poor as dirt and needing to watch every penny. It’s great to be able to get the “top of the line” everything – even if you don’t end up with the best, you’ll probably still end up with something pretty awesome. This newsletter is going to focus on the budget setup, when you really want to have a kick-ass setup but need to do it on the cheap. I’m going to include some links to equipment that I CURRENTLY USE but there are MANY other manufacturers that also offer exceptional equipment at a low price – I don’t make any money off of this – I just wanted to share a sample setup to give you an idea of what’s possible.

Here’s what you need:

  • A grow space you can make completely dark, uninterrupted for 12 hours/day
  • A light for every 25 square feet of space (approximately)
  • An exhaust fan
  • A filter (if you need to control smell)
  • Ventilation fans
  • Grow Bags (or whatever)

Grow Space – someplace you can make completely dark for when you flower. I like grow tents. Here’s a perfectly adequate 4×4 for $100 –

Grow Light – I’ve purchased a couple of these Chinese lights that have the same components as the HLG 550V2r. You can get these for about $250 + about $75 shipping –

Exhaust Fan and filter – This is a combo that includes the fan, the filter, the ducting, AND a speed controller for the fan for $100 –

Grow Bags – Here’s a 3 gallon 10 pack for $20 –

That’s really all you need. After purchasing some high quality dirt and whatever nutrients you like, you’ll probably be at about $600 or so – less than half the cost of many of the lights being pushed by the LED companies. All of the links above are merely suggestions of what is possible – I don’t want anyone holding off on starting a grow because they think they need thousands of dollars – you can do it for pretty damn cheap. Everything I’ve linked above is stuff I actually use so I know it will work for you too.

Peace, KB

Katsu on Cloning

1. Take your cutting from a healthy looking branch that isn’t very “woody” – green and flexible cuts seem to do the best.

2. Use a STERILE razor to make a diagonal cut in the stem and lightly shave the outer layer off of the bottom inch, then dip in a rooting powder or gel like clonex.

3. This is the biggie – whatever medium you are using, make sure it is BARELY damp with distilled or RO water. If your medium is too wet it will take forever to root and your stem may rot before that happens.

4. Dome your cuts to keep humidity in. If they seem to wilt, spray the inside TOP of the dome (not the cuts) to raise humidity.

5. After 3 days, start cracking your dome until they wilt, then cover again.

6. Only give your medium enough water to stay slightly damp – never wet. Squeeze out your plugs if they get too wet.

7. Adding Azos (as directed) to the distilled/RO water you use to moisten your plugs before you stick your cuts in will speed up rooting.

8. Your goal is to keep the cuts BARELY alive so as to trigger the plants survival mechanism and throw off some roots. If they are too wet they get lazy.

Peace, KB

DIY Vertical Garden

VERTICAL GARDEN FOR VEG: For more years than I care to admit, I’ve been growing my clones, seedlings, and small veging plants on the floor of a tent or the floor of my grow room. Not only is it hard on the knees and a pain in the ass, it’s messy and takes up a bunch of space. After looking at the sick-ass vertical gardens that the big light companies display at BizCon and the various cannabis conventions, I decided to take a crack at a DIY version and it CAME OUT GREAT! I’m not much of a DIY kind of guy so when I say this is easy, please take it at face value – this is really f***ing easy! I went to Costco’s website to buy a wire shelving unit (about $120 US) but you can get a similar one at all of the big box stores for about the same price. Then I purchased some 4 foot led light bars – I found a package with 6 for about $115 that come with accessories to attach them to whatever shelves you use – since I got the wire shelves the zip ties were super simple and attached in minutes. The lights themselves daisy chain together so you only have one switch to operate the whole thing. Here’s a picture (not great, but you’ll get the idea) of what it looks like finished. Start to finish you should be able to get this done in under an hour.

I purchased the 4 foot LED bars from this company for around $120

May your gardens stay green and your jars remain full!

Peace, KB

Male Isolation Chamber

Here are the DIY plans for the MALE ISOLATION CHAMBER posted by Logic from THCFarmer:

“This iss a little tutorial on how to grow your males right next to your females.It’s a box that isolates the male and filters all the air that moves through the box so that no pollen escapes.I built my first one of these about 4 years ago and posted it at OG.This will be the third box I’ve constructed.They are fairly simple to construct and if you purchase all of the materials new you will spend probably $40-$60.

Here’s an idea of what you’ll need:

Just about any computer fan should work for this.Just set the fan on the filter and trace around it with a pen then cut out the squares with a good heavy pair of scissors.I usually use two layers of filter for the fan to draw through.Try to use the best quality filter you can.I really like these purple Filtrete,they have the highest filtration rating I can find and they are easy to tape to the fan.
Once you’ve cut the squares you stack them on top of each other and then the fan on top.Then run some duct tape around it making a seal and mating them all together.Make sure the fan is pulling air through the filter,not pushing.
Now you need to make a hole in the top of the box,I have a 4” hole saw that worked perfect for this.
Next you need to seal the fan assembly to the box with some adhesive.You can use just about anything,silicone,latex,liquid nails.
Now you need to make a hole in the lid for an intake.Use a piece of left over filter to cover the hole and seal it with adhesive.
That’s about all there is to it.Just plug in the fan and it gently draws air through the box keeping the plant alive and the pollen contained.Here’s a pic with a female in the box to give an idea.I also screwed a board to the bottom for stability.
As you can see a clear box works best but you can use a solid box if you cut out the lid and put plexi-glass in it.

When my males show I take them out of the hydroton and re-plant them in soil then put them in the box,I can get about three in this one.I take the box away from the grow and gently open it for watering the males. I’ve been using this method for several years now without any problems.”

Once you collect the pollen, you can use a paintbrush to make your own seeds on a bud, a branch, or the entire plant depending on how many seeds you want to make. If you want to store the pollen for more than a few days make sure you use a desiccant and store it in the fridge.

May your gardens stay green and your jars remain full!

Peace, KB

Tissue Culture Propagation

Greetings! I hope your garden is green and your jars are full. I have been doing quite a bit of research on tissue culture propagation over the last few months and I am pretty sure this is the way of the future for maintaining clones over long periods of time.

If you’re not familiar with TCP, it is basically a way to rid a clone of bugs, disease/viruses, and “rejuvenate” it in a sterile sugar-based medium, create hundreds of clones in a very small space, and retard growth for easy storage. For people that pop seeds all the time this is probably of little to no interest, but for people that are trying to maintain large libraries of living genetics or that want to restore vigor to 20 year old clones, this is potentially a miracle.

Rather than spend any more time with a half-ass explanation, I have attached one of the better videos on the subject (that I’ve found, at least) that you can peruse at your leisure.

Another benefit of note is that this methodology can potentially be used to “rescue” really old seeds that have very little viability and that would never germinate under normal conditions.

TCP is really cool, even if you’re never going to do it yourself. Be sure to check the video.

Peace, KB